Variable Focus Moiré Lenses can be manufactured for wavelengths from the UV through the IR. The Moiré pattern of the DOEs is required to be designed for a specific wavelength; maximum efficiency is achieved when the structure heights are equal to an integer multiple of the design wavelength (2π phase shift). The limiting factor in the DOE design is the transmission properties of the substrate. Fused Silica is commonly used for UV or visible applications, whereas Germanium is a common choice for IR applications.